In , people were employed in pharmaceutical-producing companies . in the Pharmaceutical Price Ordinance ( Arzneimittelpreisverordnung). Seit sinkt die Zahl der Apotheken in Deutschland. Filialstruktur 05 . in der Arzneimittelpreisverordnung leicht angepasst. Index ( = ). wird in Deutschland durch die Arzneimittelpreisverordnung reguliert. and debt crisis, in particular in the second half of and
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The subsidization model [ 1 ].
Small and medium investments, such as the replacement of furnishings, are covered by lump-sum grants and each hospital in the hospital plan has a legal entitlement to such funding.
If a planning district is undersupplied, the associations of SHI physicians are obliged to take appropriate counter-measures by motivating physicians to open surgeries in these areas e. The minimum healthcare that must be provided by all funds is specified as a list of benefits in Book V of arzneimittelpreisvfrordnung German Social Insurance Azrneimittelpreisverordnung SGBand includes maintaining health standards, healing, health education, counseling on and measures for healthy living conditions.
Statutory Health insurance in Germany Compulsory health insurance was introduced for all residents in the Federal Republic of Germany on 1 st January Consequently, on a legal and decision-making level, bodies such as the health insurance companies and associations of statutory health insurance SHI physicians function as indirect, outsourced public administration authorities with some measure of self-governance, which take the form of statutory corporations. If higher prices are demanded e.
The contracts negotiated by the association are binding for all SHI physicians. The highest state authorities are the ministries of social affairs or health, to which, in turn, other state authorities, such as the state public health offices, report.
However, the federal government does not have to meet this obligation directly, but can delegate the service guarantee contract to state governments and other institutions.
All approved medicines, as well as all companies and institutions that manufacture, assess, store, arzneimittelpreieverordnung or distribute drugs are subject to state monitoring. Once the service provision contract has been concluded, the insurers arzneimittelpreisverordnumg facilities directly. Together the two types of insurance form the nursing insurance system, whose common institutions are the nursing insurance companies.
A variety of different funding bodies meet the expense of these services. Additionally, unlike the SHI, private insurance funds do not enter into service provision contracts with physicians or hospitals with a few exceptions.
The health insurers compensate the SHI-approved treatment of its members as lump sums per insuree, negotiated with and paid to the association of SHI physicians. Health premium increases are not only permitted, but also in fact prescribed by law, if expenses increase and can no longer be met by the SHI scheme. Outpatient medical treatment can be divided into treatment by GPs non-specialist internists, pediatricians and specialist medical treatment.
Nursing care insurance is not designed to comprehensively cover all necessary nursing care needs, but simply ensures basic nursing and home care.
The following paper provides an overview of the structural organization, individual components and funding arzneimittelpreisverornung the German healthcare system, which, in its current form, is extremely complex and which even experts find difficult to grasp. Unlike the outpatient treatment system, this self-administration authority is an association subject to private law and not a statutory corporation.
Some hospitals employ a chief executive officer, arzneimittelpreisveorrdnung carries the overall responsibility for the hospital.
Each of these hospitals has the right to a customized budget, negotiated with the health insurers individualism principle and is generally negotiated as a lump-sum for the following calendar year.
The decision depends primarily on the need for outpatient medical services in the relevant health-planning district and the SHI physician must then maintain their practice in this district. As statutory corporations, the health insurance companies are xrzneimittelpreisverordnung by the state, without themselves being agencies of the state.
SHI insurees are entitled to the provision of medically necessary drugs. Nursing insurers are required to negotiate service provision contracts with the funding bodies of nursing facilities.
Arzneimittel-Festbeträge – GKV-Spitzenverband
Funding of the German healthcare system as compared with international standards in percent of gross domestic product [ 114 ]. Hospitals not in the hospital plan have to individually negotiate a service provision contract with the state associations of statutory health insurers in order to be authorized to treat SHI insurees SHI-approved hospitals. Medical associations In contrast to the associations of SHI physicians, medical associations 17 in total focus on the regulation of the professional practice.
A nursing facility resident can only be evicted in important, justifiable cases in this case, the facility is obliged to find the resident a comparable facility and cover the moving costs.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The associations of SHI physicians 17 in total assume state duties as statutory corporations, but at the same time also represent the interests of the SHI physicians. Only in extremely serious diseases and under strict conditions can non-prescription medicines be prescribed for coverage by arzneimittelpreisverorsnung statutory health insurance company. Number of hospitals and hospital beds [ 8 ]. These self-administration committees report to the state.
However, this right only extends to medicines that are, firstly, only available on prescription and, secondly, not expressly excluded in SHI service catalogue. Private health insurance PHI companies are corporations subject to private law, which operate on a for-profit basis.