The ANC,* however, refused to disband MK,* while the CP,* AZAPO* and the PAC* baulked at the idea of holding negotiations. Notwithstanding this, CODESA 1. The result was the Pretoria Minute, an agreement that all the obstacles identified by the ANC as obstructing negotiations would be removed or addressed The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) formed an integral part of negotiating an end to apartheid and the beginning of a.

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The need for transparency in the process was exigent. The declaration stated that “the situation of South Africa in the world scene as well as internal negotjations relations requires, in our view, an acceptance of certain fundamental concepts for the economic, social and constitutional development of our country”. In South Africa, blacks and whites did not trust each other.

Between andthe African National Congress and other mainly black opposition political organisations were banned. Barnard therefore brokered an initial agreement in principle about what became known as “talks about talks”. Mandela blamed the government for the violence and for the failure to bring it under control.

It was Joe Slovoleader of the South African Communist Nwgotiationswho in proposed the breakthrough “sunset clause” for a coalition government for the five years following a democratic election, including guarantees and concessions to all sides. Indeed, a number of polls, taken around the time CODESA 11 was winding up, indicated that ANC support had, at that point leveled off at 45 per cent, reinforced that kind of thinking.

Shaking Hands with Billy: Archived from the original on It was a large swing and, according to the experts, indicated that the Conservative Party would be able to win a general election among white voters.

It was no longer thinking in terms of securing the best deal it could from the ANC, and was no longer willing to concede an outright victory to the ANC in a non-racial election. These principles envisioned as being carved on tablets of stone, immutable, and above the constituent assembly’s mandate to rewrite the interim constitution as a final constitution.



Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa

Shortly after negotoations was issued, the declaration was endorsed by several chief negotiaations of the black homelands, including Cedric Phatudi LebowaLucas Mangope Bophuthatswana and Hudson Nisanwisi Gazankulu. De Klerk announced that a “whites only” referendum would be held on the issue of reforms and negotiation.

On the contrary, he lays the blame squarely on the shoulders of Ramaphosa. Megotiations was at this stage that the process was elevated from a secret engagement to a more public engagement. Transitional politics continued after the election, with a new constitution finally agreed inand the Truth and Reconciliation Commission dealing with politically motivated crimes committed during the apartheid era.

Within three days, a remarkable rapport had been established between parties in an experience described as ‘cathartic.

Early 90’s violence through to CODESA 1 & 2 – The O’Malley Archives

The Battle of Cuito Cuanavale created a window of opportunity to create negofiations enabling conditions for a negotiated settlement, recognized by Dr Niel Barnard of the National Intelligence Service. Once De Klerk had rid himself of the threatened white backlash, he should have been able to reach accommodation with the ANC on the outstanding issues. On 10 Aprilthe assassination of Chris Hanileader of the SACP and a senior ANC leader, by white right-wingers again brought the country to negotiatikns brink of disaster, but ultimately proved a turning point, after which the main parties pushed for a settlement with increased determination.

The declaration’s purpose was to provide a blueprint for government of South Africa for racial peace in South Africa.

A prophetess declared insane – incarcerated for convenience. This was managed with the help of a foreign team led by former U. South Africa, Towards Democracy”. As the National Party cracked down on black opposition to apartheid, most leaders of ANC and other opposition organisations were either killed, imprisoned or went into exile.


In negotiattions election, with De Klerk at the helm of the National Party, the CP further increased its representation to 39 seats and secured over 50 negoyiations cent of the Afrikaner vote. Recruitment of cadre within the country for training would also cease.

Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa – Wikipedia

The Groote Nnegotiations Minute showed that problems, which were previously perceived as being intractable, really could be amicably resolved. During the negotiations, De Klerk’s government pushed for a two-phase transition with an appointed transitional government with a rotating presidency. The ANC and its alliance partners then launched various mass action country-wide campaigns which led to a tragedy in the Eastern Cape province where the Bisho Massacre occurred.

The CP returned to the trenches and complained about the unfairness of it all. The NP was trashed cpdesa the CP; the result was widely interpreted as an indicator of the level of white antipathy toward the NP’s constitutional reform proposals, and as a compelling sign that a country wide election among whites would lead to a Conservative Party victory. Indeed, if you gave in to the impulse that a gesture to accommodate did not have a hidden agenda, you had already lost. Apartheid was a system of racial discrimination and segregation in South African government.

In this sense, neither side could win since whatever tenuous bonds of trust that had been established between the two in the run-up to the plenary session of CODESA 11 had to be discounted. And like chess there could be no trusting of your counterpart’s intentions. In we had held the seat with a narrow majority.